Memory, Learning, and Brain Development

1. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

2. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2019). Cannabis (Marijuana) DrugFacts.

3. Schweinsburg AD, Brown SA, Tapert SF. The influence of marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning in adolescents. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2008;1(1):99-111.

Side Effects

4. Radhakrishnan R, Wilkinson ST, D’Souza DC. Gone to Pot – A Review of the Association between Cannabis and Psychosis. Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:54. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00054.

Lung Health

5. Angela K. Werner, Ph.D., Emilia H. Koumans, M.D., et al. Hospitalizations and Deaths Associated with EVALI. The New England Journal of Medicine, 2020.

Washington State Law and Marijuana Usage

6. Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board, Marijuana Education: Know the Law, 2019.

7. The 2021 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey:


8. Prashad S, Filbey FM. Cognitive motor deficits in cannabis users. Current opinion in behavioral sciences. 2017;13:1-7. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.07.001.


9. Winters KC, Lee C-YS. Likelihood of developing an alcohol and cannabis use disorder during youth: association with recent use and age. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008

10. Hasin DS, Saha TD, Kerridge BT, et al. Prevalence of Marijuana Use Disorders in the United States Between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(12):1235-1242. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.1858.

11. Washington State Tobacco, Alcohol and Other Drug Trends Report, (2013).

12. Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS); 2013.


13. Johnson, S. B., Blum, R. W., & Giedd, J. N. (2009). Adolescent Maturity and the Brain: The Promise and Pitfalls of Neuroscience Research in Adolescent Health Policy. Journal of Adolescent Health, 216-21.

14. Gogtay, N., Giedd, J. N., Lusk, L., Hayashi, K. M., Greenstein, D., Vaituzis, A. C., . . . Thompson, P. M. (2004). Dynamic Mapping of Human Cortical Development During Childhood Through Early Adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 8174-79.

15. Lenroot, R. K., & Giedd, J. N. (2006). Brain Development in Children and Adolescents: Insights from Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 718-29.

16. Jernigan, T. L., & Tallal, P. (1990). Late Childhood Changes in Brain Morphology Observable with MRI. Dev Med Child Neurol, 379-85.


17. Izzo, A. A., Borrelli, F., Capasso, R., Di Marzo, V., & Mechoulam, R. (2009). Non-Psychotropic Plant Cannabinoids: New Therapeutic Opportunities from an Ancient Herb. Trend Pharmacol Sci, 515-27.

18. Russo, E. B., & McPartland, J. M. (2003). Cannabis is more than Simply Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol. Psychopharmacology, 433-34.

19. Institute of Medicine. (1999). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Washington, D.C.

20. Schweinsburg, A.D.; Brown, S.A.; and Tapert, S.F. The influence of marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning in adolescents. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 1(1):99–111, 2008.

21. Fergusson, D.M., and Boden, J.M. Cannabis use and later life outcomes. Addiction. 103(6):969–976; discussion 977–968, 2008.

22. Mehmedic, Z.; Chandra, S.; Slade, D.; Denham, H.; Foster, S.; Patel, A.; Ross, S.; Khan, I.; and ElSohly, M. Potency trends of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008. J Forensic Sci 55(5):1209–1217, 2010.

Mixing Substances

23. Lee CM, Calhoun BH, Abdallah DA, Blayney JA, Schultz NR, Brunner M, Patrick ME. Simultaneous Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Young Adults: A Scoping Review of Prevalence, Patterns, Psychosocial Correlates, and Consequences. Alcohol Res. 2022 Apr 28;42(1):08. 

24. Warren A. Rhodes, Ronald J. Peters, Carrol S. Perrino & Sharronne Bryant Substance Use Problems Reported by Historically Black College Students: Combined Marijuana and Alcohol Use Versus Alcohol Alone. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 2011; 201-205

Marijuana for Medical Use

25. National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


26. Washington Traffic Safety Commission Cannabis Involvement Among Drivers in Fatal Crashes, 2022.