Memory, Learning, and Brain Development

1. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2023). Cannabis (Marijuana) DrugFacts.

2. Jacobus, J., Courtney, K. E., Hodgdon, E. A., & Baca, R. (2019). Cannabis and the developing brain: What does the evidence say?Birth Defects Research111(17), 1302-1307.

Side Effects

3. Carvalho, C., & Vieira-Coelho, M. A. (2022). Cannabis induced psychosis: A systematic review on the role of genetic polymorphismsPharmacological research181, 106258.

Lung Health

4. Angela K. Werner, Ph.D., Emilia H. Koumans, M.D., et al. Hospitalizations and Deaths Associated with EVALI. The New England Journal of Medicine, 2020.

Washington State Law and Marijuana Usage

5. Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board, Marijuana Education: Know the Law, 2023.

6. The 2021 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey:


7. Simmons, S. M., Caird, J. K., Sterzer, F., & Asbridge, M. (2022). The effects of cannabis and alcohol on driving performance and driver behaviour: a systematic review and meta‐analysisAddiction117(7), 1843-1856.


8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Addiction (Marijuana or Cannabis Use Disorder), 2020.

9. Connor, J. P., Stjepanović, D., Le Foll, B., Hoch, E., Budney, A. J., & Hall, W. D. (2021). Cannabis use and cannabis use disorderNature Reviews Disease Primers7(1), 16.


10. American Addiction Centers, The Effects of Marijuana on the Teenage and Young Adult Brain, 2024.

11. Casey, B. J., Heller, A. S., Gee, D. G., & Cohen, A. O. (2019). Development of the emotional brainNeuroscience letters693, 29-34.

12. Goddings, A. L., Beltz, A., Peper, J. S., Crone, E. A., & Braams, B. R. (2019). Understanding the role of puberty in structural and functional development of the adolescent brainJournal of Research on Adolescence29(1), 32-53.


13. Stefan Dhein; Different Effects of Cannabis Abuse on Adolescent and Adult BrainPharmacology 17 November 2020; 105 (11-12): 609–617.

14. Freeman, A. M., Petrilli, K., Lees, R., Hindocha, C., Mokrysz, C., Curran, H. V., … & Freeman, T. P. (2019). How does cannabidiol (CBD) influence the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in humans? A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews107, 696-712.

15. Fischer, A. S., Tapert, S. F., Louie, D. L., Schatzberg, A. F., & Singh, M. K. (2020). Cannabis and the developing adolescent brain. Current treatment options in psychiatry7, 144-161.

16. Chan, G. C., Becker, D., Butterworth, P., Hines, L., Coffey, C., Hall, W., & Patton, G. (2021). Young‐adult compared to adolescent onset of regular cannabis use: A 20‐year prospective cohort study of later consequencesDrug and Alcohol Review40(4), 627-636.

17. ElSohly, M. A., Chandra, S., Radwan, M., Majumdar, C. G., & Church, J. C. (2021). A comprehensive review of cannabis potency in the United States in the last decadeBiological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging6(6), 603-606.

Mixing Substances

18. Lee CM, Calhoun BH, Abdallah DA, Blayney JA, Schultz NR, Brunner M, Patrick ME. Simultaneous Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Young Adults: A Scoping Review of Prevalence, Patterns, Psychosocial Correlates, and Consequences. Alcohol Res. 2022 Apr 28;42(1):08. 

19. Lanza, H. I., Bello, M. S., Cho, J., Barrington-Trimis, J. L., McConnell, R., Braymiller, J. L., … & Leventhal, A. M. (2021). Tobacco and cannabis poly-substance and poly-product use trajectories across adolescence and young adulthoodPreventive medicine148, 106545.

Marijuana for Medical Use

20. NIDA. 2021, April 13. Is marijuana safe and effective as medicine?.


21. Washington Traffic Safety Commission Cannabis Involvement Among Drivers in Fatal Crashes, 2022.